Expert reveal the face of Stirling's medieval knight after 650 years
17 May 2010
Historic Scotland announces new research into castle's skeletons following BBC show.
A dramatic reconstruction has revealed the face of a medieval knight whose skeleton was discovered at Stirling Castle.
This Thursday, BBC Two’s History Cold Case series will attempt to discover the identity of the warrior who may have been killed during Scotland’s Wars of Independence with England in the late 13th and 14th centuries.
The castle changed hands several times and scientific tests have been used to work out whether he might have been a Scot, an Englishman or even French.
The programme focuses on two of 10 skeletons excavated from the site of a lost royal chapel at the castle.
A team led by Professor Sue Black, a world-renowned forensic anthropologist from Dundee University, wanted to find out how, why and when the knight, and a woman buried nearby, met violent ends at the castle.
Historic Scotland, which cares for the castle, has announced that it is commissioning further research to find out more about the 10 skeletons, which include two infants.
This work will be carried out by Dr Jo Buckberry of the University of Bradford and archaeological scientists Dr Janet Montgomery (University of Bradford) and Professor Julia Lee-Thorp (University of Oxford).
Plans are also being made to include the facial reconstruction, and the other research results, in a permanent exhibition due to open at Stirling Castle next spring.
Richard Strachan, Historic Scotland Senior Archaeologist, said: “Professor Black and her team have done a great job in finding out more about two of the skeletons.
“The facial reconstruction of the knight gives a powerful impression of what a warrior who died in the 1300s may have looked like.
“He was a very strong and fit nobleman, with the physique of a professional rugby player, who would have been trained since boyhood to handle heavy swords and other weapons and who would have spent a great deal of time on horseback.
“We are building on this work through a project with Dr Buckberry, and her colleagues, to use the latest archaeological techniques to discover more about the lives and origins of all the people found buried in the chapel.
“This includes where they were brought up and the food they ate, where they were from, how they died and possibly why they were buried in the castle.”
One intriguing avenue of research will be to compare the results from the Stirling skeletons to those of soldiers found in mass graves who were killed at the Battle of Towton, the decisive clash of England’s Wars of the Roses, in 1461.
Dr Buckberry, a biological anthropologist, said: “Techniques have advanced a long way since the skeletons were discovered in 1997 and we can now tell much more about where people came from, their lifestyles and causes of death.
“This group is highly unusual, because of where and when the people were buried, suggesting that they might have been socially important and have died during extreme events such as sieges.
“As the castle changed hands a number of times these are people who could have come from Scotland, England or even France and one of my hopes is that we will be able to find out where at least some of them originated.”
The skeletons, which date from the 13th to 15th centuries, were found during preparatory work for Historic Scotland’s £12 million refurbishment of the castle’s Renaissance royal palace, returning it to how it may have looked in the 1540s.
Part of the project involves the creation of superb new displays telling the story of the castle through the centuries.
Gillian MacDonald, Stirling Castle Executive Manager, said: “The BBC’s research, and the further investigations we are carrying out, will be an important part of the new exhibitions that visitors will be able to enjoy next spring.
“They will be able to see the reconstruction of the knight, who seems to have survived many terrible wounds before finally being killed.
“The displays will tell the castle’s story from its days as a royal stronghold through to more recent times. These and the newly refurbished apartments in the royal palace will mean there is lots more for visitors to do and see.”
- A full media pack about the palace project and the Stirling Heads is available online at
- A 1.7mb tiff version of the reconstruction is available by calling Paul Spence on 0131 668 8731 or emailing
The pictures should be credited to Shine TV Ltd.
Notes for editors:
- History Cold Case is a Shine production for BBC Two.
- To arrange interviews with Dr Buckberry contact Emma Banks, Media Relations Officer, Marketing & Communications, University of Bradford, Bradford, BD7 1DP. T: 01274 233089, M: 07879437996, F: 01274 236280, E: email@example.com.
- The research is being commissioned by Historic Scotland and will mostly take place at the University of Bradford’s Biological Anthropology Research Centre. Strontium isotope analysis will be undertaken at NIGL (Nottingham).
- Dr Buckberry, Dr Montgomery and Professor Lee-Thorp’s research will be published in an academic journal and a public lecture is also planned.
- For all the latest on the palace project, and everything else that happening at Stirling Castle, visit our website at www.stirlingcastle.gov.uk and sign up for our free e-newsletter.
- Stirling Castle is at the top of Stirling Old Town off the M9 at junction 9 or 10. Call 01786 450000
- Historic Scotland has 345 historic properties and sites in its care. These include some of the leading tourism attractions in the country, including Edinburgh, Stirling, and Urquhart Castles, Fort George, Linlithgow Palace, the Border Abbeys, and Skara Brae. For further details visit: www.historic-scotland.gov.uk/places.